Day 10: Breast Cancer and Lung Cancer

Series: 13 days of Oncology with Kishan Sivakumar

Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer predominantly occurs in “cells of the breasts” for either men or women; however, it is “more common in women” (“Breast cancer”). The signs of breast cancer include (but are not limited to) “breast lump or thickening… [in] the surrounding tissue”, changes in the “appearance of a breast”, or changes in the “skin over the breast… [or] a newly inverted nipple” (“Breast cancer”). The signs of breast cancer originate from “cells [beginning] to grow abnormally”, in which “cells divide more rapidly.., forming a lump” (“Breast cancer”). Furthermore, the effect of the form of cancer can be exaggerated through the metastasis from one’s “breast to…lymph nodes or to other parts of [one’s] body” (“Breast cancer”). This exaggerated reproduction largely derives from invasive ductal carcinoma or invasive lobular carcinoma (“Breast cancer”). Since cancer is primarily a hereditary crisis, it is not an exception that “5 to 10 percent of breast cancer are linked to gene mutations…through generations of a family” from breast cancer genes like BRCA1 and BRCA2, which cause increased “risk of both breast and ovarian cancer” (“Breast cancer”). The risk factors of breast cancer originate from the innate increase of age, breast conditions, or cancer in personal history, a pedigree with breast cancer through inherited genes, radiation exposure, and Postmenopausal hormone therapy (“Breast cancer”). With breast cancer being a fatal and common one in “about 30%…of all new [female] cancers each year” and with “43,250 women [that] will die from breast cancer” in 2022, there is a significant need for advancements in the field (“Key Statistics for Breast Cancer”). These cases continue rising, as “incidence rates have increased by 0.5% per year”, which can cause considerable hereditary complexities (“Key Statistics for Breast Cancer”). Furthermore, breast cancer occurrence is “projected to increase by…57.7%”, with the ASR of breast cancer to be “projected to increase up to…48.4 per 100 000 women” (Asasira et. al).

Lung Cancer

Lung cancer occurs within the “two spongy organs in your chest”, known as your lungs (“Lung cancer”). Individuals prone to lung cancer are essentially those who smoke; however, it is still possible for one who does not smoke to develop lung cancer (“Lung cancer”). Lung cancer “typically [starts] in the cells lining the bronchi and” in the bronchioles (“What Is Lung Cancer?”). Under these conditions, there are “2 main types of lung cancer” that can develop: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) (“What Is Lung Cancer?”). Under NSCLC, Adenocarcinoma begins in “cells that would normally secrete…mucus”, which predominantly occurs in those that smoke in general(“What Is Lung Cancer?”). Furthermore, Squamous cell carcinomas “start in squamous cells…in the central part of the lungs”, deriving from NSCLC (“What Is Lung Cancer?”). Another subtype under NSCLC, along with others like adenosquamous carcinoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma, is large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, which can cause “fast-growing cancer that is very similar to small cell lung cancer”, which spreads rapidly (“What Is Lung Cancer?”). The second primary type of lung cancer is Small cell lung cancer (SCLC), which spreads “faster than NSCLC” and is responded to with “chemotherapy and radiation therapy” (“What Is Lung Cancer?”). Generally, lung cancer can cause the formation of tumors, such as Lung carcinoid tumors and hamartomas (a rare variant), that spread slowly but can be “benign…and treated differently from the more common lung cancers” (“What Is Lung Cancer?”).


“Breast Cancer.” Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 27 Apr.
“Breast Cancer: Breast Cancer Information & Overview.” American Cancer Society,
“Lung Cancer Guide: What You Need to Know.” American Cancer Society,
“Lung Cancer.” Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 22 Mar.


Kishan Sivakumar

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