Day 9: Eye Cancer and Colon Cancer

Series: 13 days of Oncology with Kishan Sivakumar

Eye Cancer

Eye cancer “starts in the eye…when cells begin to grow out of control”, the most predominant variant being melanoma (“What Is Eye…”). The fatal disease primarily affects the vitreous humor in the eyeball, orbit, or adnexal, which are instrumental in eye function (“What Is Eye…”). If cancer starts “in the eye [it is] called primary intraocular cancers” or secondary intraocular cancers (“What Is Eye…”). Primary intraocular cancers in adults primarily consist of melanoma, which “develop from pigment-making cells called melanocytes” as uveal melanomas or conjunctival melanomas, and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (“What Is Eye…”). On the other hand, for children, Eye Cancer primarily comes in variants of Retinoblastoma, which “starts in cells in the retina”, and Medulloepithelioma, which is “still extremely rare” (“What Is Eye…”). Furthermore, Secondary intraocular cancers “are not truly ‘eye cancers’”, as it commonly spreads “to the [uvea from] breast and lung cancers” (“What Is Eye…”). However, in more direct and rare cases, like Uveal melanomas, there can be adverse effects on the iris, the “colored part of the eye” that “surrounds the pupil”, the choroid”, which “nourishes the retina”, or the ciliary body, which “makes aqueous humor…between the cornea and the lens” (“What Is Eye…”). Melanomas in eye cancer can also come as Conjunctival melanomas, which affect the “thin clear covering over the sclera”, or the conjunctiva, in rare cases spreading “through the blood and lymph system…[and] become life-threatening” (“What Is Eye…”). In the broader scheme, Eye Cancer can generally come as Orbital and Adnexal Eye Cancer, with subgroups like Rhabdomyosarcoma, “affecting the eye muscles” (“What Is Eye…”). Ultimately, the development of eye cancer can be either direct or indirect from the development of other forms of cancer.

Colon Cancer

Colon cancer “begins in the large intestine (colon)”, which is the “final part of the digestive tract” (“Colon cancer”). With a primarily affected populace of older adults, there are signs of “small, noncancerous (benign) clumps of cells called polyps” that are considered early signs of colon cancer (“Colon cancer”). Furthermore, with these symptoms having the ability to form in multiple areas of the digestive tract, there is a known variation called colorectal cancer that “begins in the rectum” (“Colon cancer”). The general symptoms of predominant forms of colon cancer include changes “in…bowel habits”, “rectal bleeding or blood in…stool”, and general forms of fatigue (“Colon cancer”). These symptoms generally develop from causes like mutations in DNA that cause cells “to continue to divide…[and] accumulate” to create a tumor that can “destroy normal tissue and can be a sign of metastasis” (“Colon cancer”). With the leading cause of colon cancer being DNA complexities, there can be origins in inherited syndromes like “Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) and Lynch syndrome”, alternatively known as Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC) (“Colon cancer”). Much like other variants of cancer, the origin of adverse effects on the colon can derive from “lymphoma, carcinoid tumors, melanoma, and sarcomas”, which would still usually require chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or targeted therapy (“Colon cancer”). With complications in the digestive tract, the effect of colon cancer can have significant effects on the general excretion of waste for an individual.

Sources

“Colon Cancer.” Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 8 Oct.
2022, https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/colon-cancer/symptoms-causes/syc-20353669.
“Colon Cancer.” Mount Sinai Health System, https://www.mountsinai.org/health-library/diseases-conditions/colon-cancer.
“Types of Eye Cancer.” Types of Eye Cancer | Cancer Research UK, 17 Nov. 2021,
https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/eye-cancer/stages-types/types.
“What Is Eye Cancer?” American Cancer Society,
https://www.cancer.org/cancer/eye-cancer/about/what-is-eye-cancer.html#:~:text=Intraocular%2
0melanoma%20is%20the%20most,pigment%2Dmaking%20cells%20called%20melanocytes.

Image: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/eye-melanoma/symptoms-causes/syc-20372371#dialogId32795536

Kishan Sivakumar

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